The Evolution of Bacteria & Antibiotics

The Evolution of Bacteria & Antibiotics

How Bacteria & Antibiotics Have Evolutionized Over Time

The antibiotics era is approximately sixty years old and though antibiotics have life-saving properties there has been concern about the overuse of antibiotics creating resistance making it nearly impossible to treat infections in the future because infectious bacteria will be resistant to conventional antibiotic therapy.

The main focus of resistant antibiotic development is antibiotic stewardship, in other words using antibiotics for appropriate bacterial infections and not just CYA (Cover You’re a$$) for the viral infection being seen in the urgent care setting. Another focus of antibiotic resistance is to reduce transmission from patient to patient in the hospital setting by using strict isolating techniques depending on the organism and the site of infection.

These foci are important but addressing resistant infections today goes way beyond hand washing, gloving, gowning and masking or treating a viral respiratory tract infection with azithromycin. Those techniques would be all we need if we were a healthy homogenous population. The advances that have been made in medical sciences over the last 100 years have drastically altered the global population. Prior to the antibiotic era, the leading cause of death worldwide was infectious diseases. Today it’s heart disease with cancer a close second. Death due to influenza and pneumonia is a distant 8th. One hundred years ago it was number one. Today there are hundreds of thousands if not millions of people walking around with more than one chronic disease because of the advances in medicine.

The downside to surviving with a chronic disease today is the likelihood that these patients are more susceptible to recurrent infections. Recently, I saw a patient who had osteosarcoma as an infant and she received radiation therapy which was life-saving. Unfortunately, the radiation therapy destroyed her ureters and kidneys requiring her to undergo a kidney transplant. Furthermore, the damage to the ureters doesn’t allow for the normal flow of urine requiring the patient to have a nephrostomy tube placed. As it is the patient has not only recurrent urinary tract infections but she also has infections at the nephrostomy site.

Previous cultures of the nephrostomy site were considered either contamination or colonizers and never a true infection because of the lack of erythema and pus at the site. If this was a normal host I would agree. However, in this case, between immunosuppressive drugs and radiation damage to the surrounding tissue, this is not a patient who can have a “normal” inflammatory response.

Patient like this is becoming the norm as opposed to 50-60 years ago. Sixty years ago I’m not treating a patient like this because she would have died in infancy. As we deal with more chronic patients we have to learn how to deal with more chronic infections.

Read more about the changes needed to manage these types of patients.

Chronic infections are more than just isolated organisms causing recurrent problems in a patient with an open-ended problem as the one described above. Over the last sixty years, infectious organisms have been evolving much more than just creating enzymes to neutralize antibiotics.

The other evolutionary process bacteria have incorporated is biofilm formation. Biofilm is more than slime being created by a bunch of organisms that appears to be more of a contaminant than a true infection. Biofilm is a very sophisticated barrier of mucopolysaccharides that creates defenses other than what is seen in the bacteria themselves. These extracellular polymeric substances or EPS are proteins, nucleic acids, and other macromolecules that create defenses for the antibiotics and the immune system way before they can even get to the bacteria.

Read more about the Evolution of Antibiotics & Biofilm.

Imagine the biofilm as a 16th-century city-state and depending on how diverse that population is behind that city wall there could be a tremendous amount of information being exchanged. In this case, it is genetic information shared. That exchange can lead to chronic infections that will not respond to conventional therapy.

Recently the University of Pittsburgh presented two excellent posters on the association of biofilm and chronic respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The research is aimed at showing the relationship between viral infections and pathogenic bacteria and how the association promotes the formation of biofilm which can lead to exacerbations of bacterial infections after an exposure to a viral illness. CF in itself demonstrates just how medical evolution has played its part in helping develop biofilm formation as we see more and more CF patients live well into their forties when 50 years ago they were lucky to make it into their teens.

Bacteria and other microorganisms are survivors and after sixty years of antibiotic assault, we’re seeing just how adaptable bacteria are. Think about this for a minute, if the antibiotic era is sixty years in the making and bacteria have the potential to double in 30 minutes how many generations of genetic mutations do you think occurred in that time period? That is an outstanding amount of selective pressure that has been introduced. As I’ve said before in the past sixty years there have to be trillions if not gazillions of mutations that have occurred.

Antibiotic resistance is a major problem today and our own evolution coincides with the evolution of bacterial infections we see. If we are to get a better handle on infections in the era of chronic disease states we need to be more aware of managing biofilm.

By | 2018-11-01T22:39:08-04:00 May 21st, 2018|Antibiotics, Infectious Disease|

About the Author:

I am a passionate blogger, author, speaker and 3X Board Certified MD in Infectious Disease, Internal & Sleep Medicine. I currently am an infectious disease physician in Atlanta, GA for Infectious Disease Consultants.

43 Comments

  1. cara menang main slot online December 19, 2021 at 12:05 am - Reply

    Usually, gamers could convert their money to chips and vice versa. Much of the enjoyable of playing a poker sport at home depends on how the game is established up. This one is too important as it does the negotiating for you.

  2. mesin slot online December 19, 2021 at 1:21 am - Reply

    Make sure you routine an appointment to see the home. Harrington has arrive up with all his proven winning methods and tactics in this book. Another ways for rooms to make money is by internet hosting a match.

  3. game slot online terbaik December 19, 2021 at 2:21 am - Reply

    To start with one should always consider that there are a number of online casinos from which one can choose to get the best game slot machine experience. The first thing that any of us would like to do is to find an online casino that has got the best game slots and this can be done by keeping some important points in mind. There are many online casinos from which you can access and take advantage of this golden opportunity but there are some factors that you need to keep in your mind and this will ensure that you find the best experience. These tips and techniques will ensure that you make the right choice and take home the big jackpot.

  4. slot game online December 20, 2021 at 11:48 pm - Reply

    Slot machine games are loved by casino goers of all ages and this is the reason why the slot machine business is one of the most successful businesses in all casino industry. Slot machine gaming has been popularized by the progressive casinos and their machines offer a great variety of exciting games including pay-to-play and bonus game slot machines. You can find a number of websites that offer complete information about online casinos, latest jackpot amounts, number of slot machines, the number of machines per game room and other casino details. All this is provided for your convenience and you can take your decision after having a good look over all these information. So, if you too want to experience the same excitement that you see players experiencing at these casinos then opt for online slot machines.

  5. agen slot online December 21, 2021 at 1:01 am - Reply

    If you enjoy playing online casino games, perhaps you would enjoy playing in a game slot machine, it is quite exciting especially when you win. This gives you the thrill and excitement that many casino goers crave for when they play in the casinos. You do not have to travel to Las Vegas or Atlantic City to enjoy slot gaming fun. It can be enjoyed just as much wherever you happen to live.

  6. situs slot online December 21, 2021 at 1:58 am - Reply

    Slot machine games are loved by casino goers of all ages and this is the reason why the slot machine business is one of the most successful businesses in all casino industry. Slot machine gaming has been popularized by the progressive casinos and their machines offer a great variety of exciting games including pay-to-play and bonus game slot machines. You can find a number of websites that offer complete information about online casinos, latest jackpot amounts, number of slot machines, the number of machines per game room and other casino details. All this is provided for your convenience and you can take your decision after having a good look over all these information. So, if you too want to experience the same excitement that you see players experiencing at these casinos then opt for online slot machines.

  7. can you buy cialis online December 21, 2021 at 6:42 pm - Reply

    Unquestionably believe that which you said. Your favorite justification seemed to be on the internet the simplest
    thing to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people think about
    worries that they plainly do not know about.

    You managed to hit the nail upon the top and also defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people can take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

  8. casino slot online indonesia December 27, 2021 at 12:29 am - Reply

    To start with you need to always contemplate there are a number of online casinos from which can choose to have the very best sport slot equipment experience. The first thing that anybody wish to do is to get an on line casino that has got the most effective sport slots and that can be carried out by keeping some essential factors in mind. There are numerous on the web casinos from which you can access and take advantage of that golden possibility but there are several factors that you might want to keep in your thoughts and this can make certain that you find a very good experience. These tips and methods will make sure that you produce the right choice and collect the huge jackpot.

  9. situs slot online terbaik December 27, 2021 at 1:48 am - Reply

    Many individuals have been enjoying the fun and entertainment received from playing game slots. Even though casino goers have gained most of their pleasure and attention from playing slot machines, there are also many people who have been enjoying the benefits offered by online casinos. While both types of gambling can give you enjoyment and excitement, there are some advantages provided by online casinos that make them popular than other types of gambling. One of the main reasons why online casinos are popular is that there are a wide variety of games offered which allows gamblers to find a game that suits their preferences. Some of the most common types of gambling activities included in online casinos include:

  10. cara bermain slot online December 27, 2021 at 2:49 am - Reply

    Several persons have now been enjoying the enjoyment and amusement received from playing sport slots. Even though casino goers have received most of the satisfaction and interest from enjoying slot devices, additionally there are many those who have been experiencing the huge benefits provided by on the web casinos. While both types of gaming may offer you enjoyment and enjoyment, there are several benefits supplied by online casinos that make them popular than other kinds of gambling. One of the significant reasons why online casinos are popular is that there are certainly a wide variety of activities offered allowing gamblers to discover a game that suits their preferences. Some of the very common forms of gaming activities included in online casinos include:

  11. slot machine online December 29, 2021 at 3:59 am - Reply

    If you enjoy playing online casino games, possibly you would appreciate playing in a game title position equipment, it’s very fascinating specially when you win. This gives you the enjoyment and excitement that many casino goers desire for when they play in the casinos. You don’t have to go Las Vegas or Atlantic Town to take pleasure from position gaming fun. It could be enjoyed as much wherever you happen to live.

  12. judi online slot December 29, 2021 at 5:14 am - Reply

    To start with one should always consider that there are a number of online casinos from which one can choose to get the best game slot machine experience. The first thing that any of us would like to do is to find an online casino that has got the best game slots and this can be done by keeping some important points in mind. There are many online casinos from which you can access and take advantage of this golden opportunity but there are some factors that you need to keep in your mind and this will ensure that you find the best experience. These tips and techniques will ensure that you make the right choice and take home the big jackpot.

  13. trik bermain slot online December 29, 2021 at 6:17 am - Reply

    The game of slot machines has evolved into an international phenomenon with casinos all over the world offering a variety of incentives and bonuses to players of every caliber. There are several online casinos that offering “game reset” bonuses to their slot players, whereby players may cash in any bonuses they have won on slot machines located in other countries, for example, a player may get double the bonus money if he or she can cash in bonus won on an Irish casino. Moreover, some online casinos offer players “points” system whereby a certain number of bonus points may be accumulated. These bonus points may then be redeemed for a variety of goods and services.

  14. online slot machines December 30, 2021 at 9:05 am - Reply

    If you are planning to visit an on line casino and would like to play your chosen sport position machine, be assured that there are numerous options for you yourself to choose from. In fact, you won’t just have a lot of choices accessible, however you will also get the chance to enjoy for free. These types of casinos let participants to play a common slot devices from the comforts of their own houses, so this means that you may not need certainly to travel to Vegas or Atlantic Town if you want to play some of your preferred casino position games.

  15. agen slot online December 30, 2021 at 10:25 am - Reply

    To increase your bankroll in slot-machine gaming, one of the best ways to do it’s to play benefit sport position machines. Although some slot models give out advantage upon winning, not these do. Additionally, there are casinos that not offer winnings with in-game bonuses. In this case, it is going to be intelligent for position people to get these casinos on their own or through on the web resources. There are some those who have taken it upon themselves to study most of the several types of machines in the casino or online casinos; through that they will know when they should lay out their money and when they can you need to take their chances.

  16. slot game online December 30, 2021 at 11:26 am - Reply

    To increase your bankroll in slot-machine gaming, one of the best ways to do it’s to enjoy bonus game position machines. While some slot machines give out bonus upon earning, maybe not these do. There’s also casinos that do perhaps not present winnings with in-game bonuses. In this case, it will soon be smart for slot players to get these casinos on their own or through online resources. There are some people who have taken it upon themselves to review most of the various kinds of products in the casino or on line casinos; through this they will know when they should lay out their income and when they can you need to take their chances.

  17. 2testament December 30, 2021 at 8:24 pm - Reply

    2thirty-seven

  18. situs judi slot online December 31, 2021 at 2:44 am - Reply

    Slot machine games are loved by casino goers of all ages and this is the reason why the slot machine business is one of the most successful businesses in all casino industry. Slot machine gaming has been popularized by the progressive casinos and their machines offer a great variety of exciting games including pay-to-play and bonus game slot machines. You can find a number of websites that offer complete information about online casinos, latest jackpot amounts, number of slot machines, the number of machines per game room and other casino details. All this is provided for your convenience and you can take your decision after having a good look over all these information. So, if you too want to experience the same excitement that you see players experiencing at these casinos then opt for online slot machines.

  19. casino slot online indonesia December 31, 2021 at 4:03 am - Reply

    If you wish to enjoy some fun, you’ll have lots of enjoyment on game slot machines. If you don’t know much about gaming, you might be interested to understand more about the various kinds of slots, their particular functions and different methods for enjoying them. This article will give you some data that will allow you to get acquainted with this type of game. Game Slot Devices can also be called Blackjack and Video Poker. Most of these online casinos give you a wide selection of casino games including Bingo, Craps, Keno, Poker, Slots and Roulette.

  20. judi mesin slot online December 31, 2021 at 5:05 am - Reply

    There is a lot of money to be made from casino game slots. This is because the slot reels spin continuously for eighty-five seconds or more in many casinos. In addition to this, jackpots of a certain size can be won in some cases. These are things that people with slot machines gambling addiction will tell you. So is there really any real money to be made from casino slot machines?

  21. gay dating in tupelo January 2, 2022 at 7:43 am - Reply

    free gay dating sites grindr craigslist https://gaypridee.com

  22. dating gay macho weho January 2, 2022 at 8:43 am - Reply

    gay dating east tennessee https://gay-buddies.com

  23. amateur after dating gay sex January 2, 2022 at 9:42 am - Reply

    gay dating hookup https://gayprideusa.com

  24. chicago gay dating hotlines free January 2, 2022 at 10:43 am - Reply

    gay dating grinder https://speedgaydate.com

  25. popular gay dating apps January 2, 2022 at 12:50 pm - Reply

    the best free gay hookup and dating sites https://gaysugardaddydatingsites.com

  26. film porn January 4, 2022 at 8:36 am - Reply

    Many individuals have been enjoying the fun and entertainment received from playing game slots. Even though casino goers have gained most of their pleasure and attention from playing slot machines, there are also many people who have been enjoying the benefits offered by online casinos. While both types of gambling can give you enjoyment and excitement, there are some advantages provided by online casinos that make them popular than other types of gambling. One of the main reasons why online casinos are popular is that there are a wide variety of games offered which allows gamblers to find a game that suits their preferences. Some of the most common types of gambling activities included in online casinos include:

  27. gisel porn January 4, 2022 at 9:57 am - Reply

    If you wish to appreciate some fun, you could have lots of enjoyment on sport position machines. If you do not know significantly about gaming, you may be interested to know more concerning the different types of slots, their special functions and different methods for enjoying them. This informative article will provide you with some data that will help you get acquainted with this type of game. Sport Slot Models is also called Blackjack and Movie Poker. Many of these online casinos provide a wide variety of casino games including Bingo, Craps, Keno, Poker, Slots and Roulette.

  28. asian porn January 4, 2022 at 10:59 am - Reply

    To boost your bankroll in slot-machine gambling, one of the greatest ways to accomplish it is to enjoy advantage sport position machines. While some position products hand out advantage upon earning, not these do. Additionally, there are casinos that do perhaps not offer winnings with in-game bonuses. In cases like this, it is likely to be smart for position participants to locate these casinos independently or through on the web resources. There are some people who have taken it upon themselves to study all of the various kinds of products in the casino or online casinos; through this they will know when they ought to lay down their money and when they are able to you need to their chances.

  29. fliew January 9, 2022 at 1:47 pm - Reply

    Hi, this is Anna. I am sending you my intimate photos as I promised. https://tinyurl.com/yxk43cuy

  30. Cube Toronto January 10, 2022 at 6:14 am - Reply

    Hello, of course this piece of writing is truly fastidious and I have learned lot of things from it concerning blogging. thanks.

  31. 1untimely January 12, 2022 at 6:14 pm - Reply

    3occurred

  32. gay live chat January 14, 2022 at 5:24 am - Reply

    chat with sexy black gay men https://bjsgaychatroom.info/

  33. gay dating red flags January 14, 2022 at 11:01 am - Reply

    the best gay dating sites https://gaypridee.com/

  34. gay phone chat lines caribbean January 14, 2022 at 11:33 am - Reply

    gay web cam chat room https://gaytgpost.com/

  35. gay masturbate chat January 14, 2022 at 4:48 pm - Reply

    free chat now gay https://gay-buddies.com/

  36. gay farmers dating sites January 15, 2022 at 6:56 am - Reply

    gay older men dating https://speedgaydate.com/

  37. derrpenm January 20, 2022 at 2:14 am - Reply
  38. DavidFeete January 21, 2022 at 6:51 pm - Reply

    ivermectin 500ml stromectol1st – ivermectin cost canada
    http://stromectol1st.online/# ivermectin 8000
    buy stromectol generic stromectol ivermectin 50 mg

Leave A Comment

Join 10,000 Subscribers
AND GET DR. PUGLIESE'S LATEST CONTENT IN YOUR INBOX

SUBSCRIBE 
Your information will never be shared
close-link
Sign up and receive the latest blog posts & take back your health!
Subscribe
Subscribe
close-image